The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has proposed a three-stage process culminating in international design certification for new reactor types, notably Generation IV types. It has upgraded pressure vessel, increased power to 3300 MWt and 1255 MWe gross (nominally 1300, hence VVER-1300), improved core design still with 163 fuel assemblies to increase cooling reliability, larger steam generators, further development of passive safety with 72-hour grace period requiring no operator intervention after shutdown, lower construction and operating costs, and 40-month construction time. It is significantly different from preceding BN models, and Rosatom plans to submit the BN-1200 to the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) as a Generation IV design. Highly reliable, less complex safe shutdown systems, particularly ones with inherent or passive safety features; Simplified safety systems that allow more straightforward engineering analysis, operate with fewer operator actions and increase operator comprehension of reactor conditions; Concurrent resolution of safety and security requirements, resulting in an overall security system that requires fewer human actions; Features that prevent a simultaneous breach of containment and loss of core cooling from an aircraft impact, or that inherently delay any radiological release, and; Features that maintain spent fuel pool integrity following an aircraft impact. OECD NEA 2001, Trends in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle 0000073415 00000 n These and other nuclear power units now operating have been found to be safe and reliable, but they are being superseded by better designs. Such fuel cycles will compete effectively with the present CANDU fuel cycle. In parallel but somewhat ahead, China Guangdong Nuclear Power Corporation, now China General Nuclear Power (CGN) led the development of the 1100 MWe ACPR-1000, with 157 fuel assemblies (same as the French M-310 predecessor), and about 30 of these have been built. It has a core cooling system including passive residual heat removal by convection, improved containment isolation, passive containment cooling system to the atmosphere and in-vessel retention of core damage (corium) with water cooling around it. One AFCR can be fully fuelled by the recycled uranium from four LWRs’ used fuel. It will be able to maintain its output at 25% and then ramp up to full output at a rate of 2.5% of rated power per minute up to 60% output and at 5% of rated output per minute up to full rated power. Poland appears to be a candidate for the demonstration plant. Graphite reflector blocks are both inside and around the core. Some consortium partners were interested in desalination, one in district heating. The first commercial version will be China's HTR-PM, being built at Shidaowan in Shandong province. As the GDA for the EPR design proceeded, issues arose which were in common with new capacity being built elsewhere, particularly the EPR units in Finland and France. Its emergency core cooling system (ECCS) has four independent trains, and its outer walls and roof are 1.8 m thick. European Utility Requirements (EUR) since 2001 specify that new reactor designs must be capable of load-following between 50 and 100% of capacity. Fourth-generation reactors are at the R&D or concept stage. A single unit has 149 structural modules broadly of five kinds, and 198 mechanical modules of four kinds: equipment, piping & valve, commodity, and standard service modules. The first of these are operating in Korea – Shin Kori 3&4 – with Shin Hanul 1&2 under construction. The first four ABWRs were each built in 39-43 months on a single-shift basis. One was an advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR) derived from a General Electric design and then promoted both by GE Hitachi and Toshiba as a proven design, which is in service in Japan and was being built in Taiwan. However, the structural design for the USA and UK was significantly modified from 2008 to withstand aircraft impact. It will use a low-speed turbine-generator and can undertake daily load-following down to 50% of power. The EPR has undergone UK generic design assessment, with some significant changes to instrumentation and control systems being agreed with other national regulators, and two are being built at Hinkley Point C in the UK. GE's ABWR, Areva's Kerena, and Westinghouse's BWR 90 also have some measure of EUR approval. The US$ 200 million program was half funded by DOE and meant that prospective buyers then had fuller information on construction costs and schedules. Tepco was funding the design of a next generation BWR, and the ABWR-II is quoted as 1717 MWe. The IAEA's International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) is focused more on developing country needs, and initially involved Russia rather than the USA, though the USA has now joined it. It has been built in China at Sanmen and Haiyang, and is under construction at Vogtle in the USA. The first two are planned for Tsuruga, originally to come online from 2016. No safety-related pumps or ventilation systems are needed. The main rationale for RMWRs is extending the world's uranium resource and providing a bridge to widespread use of fast neutron reactors. The acronym refers to its deuterium oxide (heavy water) moderator and its use of (originally, natural) uranium fuel. The basic Gidropress reactor is V-510. It has 24-month refuelling cycle. Further reduced possibility of core melt accidents.*. Ultimately it aims to develop multinational regulatory standards for design of Gen IV reactors. 25 MPa and 625ºC) to provide 40% thermal efficiency. It is now funded through the IAEA budget. H�b```f``�e`c`8� Ȁ ��@Q�_`���K���W��pk0�a``|{����l$��4�/�=~DİK��t�GV���*�;5 Gy�~_���d/:id�+�8:Ke�k�y��(����Gy����,���hW4�=�@ 4�����I�T1E. It uses uranium oxide fuel and the sodium coolant delivers 550°C at little more than atmospheric pressure. ACR-1000 was moving towards design certification in Canada, and a three-phase vendor pre-project design review was completed in 2010. It retains four coolant loops and has 163 FA-2 fuel assemblies, each with 534 kg of UO2 fuel enriched to 4.95%. Commercialisation envisaged after 2020. 0000002884 00000 n It is also being built in Pakistan. 0000003695 00000 n The Russian BN-600 fast breeder reactor at Beloyarsk has been supplying electricity to the grid since 1981 and has the best operating and production record of all Russia's nuclear power units. An application for US design certification was lodged in 2013 and a revised version accepted in March 2015. It is inherently safe and uses a high-density U+Pu nitride fuel with no requirement for high enrichment levels. Versatility of fuel is a claimed feature of the EC6 and its derivatives. Details of MIR-1200 and VVER-TOI are in the Nuclear Power in Russia information page. Many are larger than predecessors. Adopting light water cooling and a more compact core reduces capital cost, and because the reactor is run at higher temperature and coolant pressure, it has higher thermal efficiency. It is planned for building in the UK. Recycled plutonium should be used preferentially in RMWRs rather than as MOX in conventional LWRs, and multiple recycling of plutonium is possible. Under construction at Kursk II, planned for Nizhny Novgorod and many more in Russia. The core is a similar size to that of the BN-600. Further details in the information paper on Fast Neutron Reactors. In 2013 Hitachi-GE applied for UK generic design approval for the ABWR, and after some design changes this is likely to be granted at the end of 2017. The calandria has about 450 vertical pressure tubes and the coolant is pressurised light water boiling at 285ºC and circulated by convection. 0000003925 00000 n Substantial grace period, so that following shutdown the plant requires no active intervention for (typically) 72 hours. It has 257 fuel assemblies of a new design, 18- to 24-month fuel cycle, and passive decay heat removal. In both, long-term decay heat removal does not rely on electrical power or ultimate heat sink. More are planned in Japan and four are planned in the UK. Smirnov V.S. Designs certified as complying with EUR include Westinghouse's AP1000, Gidropress's AES-92 and VVER-TOI, Areva's EPR, Mitsubishi’s EU-APWR and in 2017 KHNP's APR1400 (EU-APR). The emergency core cooling system has eliminated the need for pumps, using passive and stored energy. In 2010 Atomenergoproekt announced the VVER-TOI (typical optimised, with enhanced information) design based on V-392M. The Advanced CANDU reactor (ACR), or ACR-1000, is a Generation III+ nuclear reactor designed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). European regulators are increasingly requiring large new reactors to have some kind of core catcher or similar device, so that in a full core-melt accident there is enhanced provision for cooling the bottom of the reactor pressure vessel or simply catching any material that might melt through it. It is a four-loop design with 257 fuel assemblies and neutron reflector, is simpler, combines active and passive cooling systems in a double containment, and has over 55 GWd/t fuel burn-up. Following an 18-month review, the French regulator ASN approved the general design in February 2012. The main development of the type was to be through UniStar Nuclear Energy. Cogeneration heat supply capacity is 300 MWt. The Commission believes designers should consider several reactor characteristics, including: The Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) is a light water reactor, essentially as used today, with the fuel packed in more tightly to reduce the moderating effect of the water. Hence deployment of AFCRs will greatly reduce the task of managing used fuel and disposing of high-level waste, and could reduce China’s fresh uranium requirements. The application was supported by European utilities, and was granted in 2017. This will take India's ambitious thorium program to stage 2, and set the scene for eventual full utilisation of the country's abundant thorium to fuel reactors. A contrast between the 1188 MWe Westinghouse reactor at Sizewell B in the UK and the modern Westinghouse AP1000 of similar power illustrates the evolution from 1970-80 types. Units will be assembled from prefabricated modules, cutting construction time to 3.5 years. It is being developed by General Atomics in partnership with Russia's OKBM Afrikantov, supported by Fuji (Japan). Plutonium production will be less than in light water reactors, and the fissile proportion will be less and the Pu-238 portion three times as high, giving inherent proliferation resistance. A GDA of each type can then be followed by site- and operator-specific licensing. CNNC and CGN in December 2015 formed a 50-50 joint venture company – Hualong International Nuclear Power Technology Co – to market it. About 400 reactor-years of operating experience have been accumulated. Used fuel can be recycled indefinitely, with on-site reprocessing and associated facilities. Construction of the first unit at Shidaowan started without public announcement in 2019. In 2011 the reactor division of AECL was sold and became Candu Energy Inc, a subsidiary of SNC-Lavalin. The planned APWR+ is 1750 MWe and has full-core MOX capability. Lauret, P. et al, 2001, The Nuclear Engineer 42, 5. Under construction: Shin Hanul 1&2 in South Korea, Barakah in UAE. * Traditional reactor safety systems are 'active' in the sense that they involve electrical or mechanical operation on command. The reactor is simpler overall and uses high-burnup fuels (to 65 GWd/t) enriched to 3.54%, giving it refuelling intervals of up to 24 months. A standard 100-50-100% daily load follow operation has been considered in the reactor core design as well as in the plant control systems." IRIS is a modular 335 MWe pressurised water reactor with integral steam generators and primary coolant system all within the pressure vessel. It is a two-loop design based on the V-491 St Petersburg version of the VVER-1200 and using the same basic equipment but without core-catcher (corium retained within RPV). In the MOX part, minor actinides are burned as well as recycled plutonium. Also it is more highly reinforced against aircraft impact than any earlier designs. Outer ring: 24 pins Th-U with 4.444% U-235. The detailed design was completed in May 2017, and the first unit is to be built at Beloyarsk possibly from 2020. It is now known as the Evolutionary PWR (EPR). The New Nuclear Power, 21st Century, Spring 2001, A feature of some new designs is modular construction. Canadian design certification is under way. 0000010408 00000 n Another US-origin but international project which is a few years behind the AP1000 is the IRIS (International Reactor Innovative & Secure). CANDU stands for Canada deuterium uranium, because it uses deuterium oxide (heavy water) as a moderator and coolant and uses natural (not enriched) uranium as a fuel. 0000006843 00000 n It is the basis for the next generation of Japanese PWRs. A significant amount of useful material (and available energy) still exists in the fuel which is discharged from LWR reactors. Initially it was to be used to burn pure ex-weapons plutonium at Seversk (Tomsk) in Russia. The CANDU/PHWR is an optimal reactor choice for developing nations, when equipped with the right fuel. UK generic design assessment approval for Hitachi's version of the ABWR is expected at the end of 2017. 0000048098 00000 n The means that many small components are assembled in a factory environment (offsite or onsite) into structural modules weighing up to 1000 tonnes, and these can be hoisted into place. The void reactivity is negative, as in a conventional LWR. A two year licensing review of the CANDU-9 design was successfully completed early in 1997, but the design has been shelved. However, certification of designs is on a national basis, and is safety-based – see section below. US Dept of Energy, EIA 2003, New Reactor Designs. The commercial-scale plant concept, part of an 'Advanced Recycling Center', uses three power blocks (six reactor modules) to provide 1866 MWe. Hitachi has also been closely involved, with its RBWR concept which has a major aim of burning actinides. Many technical and engineering questions remain to be explored before the potential of this concept can be demonstrated. Gidropress has developed the VVER-600/V-498 for sites such as Kola, where larger units are not required. Safety systems are active – GEH describes it as “the pinnacle of the evolution of active safety.”. CANDU/PHWRs generally use natural uranium (0.7% … 0000007784 00000 n LaBar M. 2003, Status of the GT-MHR for electricity production, WNA Symposium Two examples built by Hitachi and two by Toshiba have been in commercial operation in Japan (1315 MWe net), with another two under construction there and two in Taiwan. Regulatory confidence in safety is enhanced by a small negative void reactivity for the first time in CANDU, and utilising other passive safety features as well as two independent and fast shutdown systems. While most French reactors are operated in that mode to some extent, the EPR design has better capabilities. The possible options for advanced fuel cycles in CANDU reactors including actinide burning options and thorium cycles were explored and are feasible options to increase the efficiency of uranium utilization and help close the fuel cycle. South Africa's Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) was being developed by a consortium led by the utility Eskom, with Mitsubishi Heavy Industries from 2010. Commercial operation in Japan since 1996-7. 0000011380 00000 n The cylindrical core consists of 102 hexagonal fuel element columns of graphite blocks with channels for helium and control rods. They function without operator control and despite any loss of auxiliary power. This design change increased the capital cost. The latter two were withdrawn from the process in 2008 and in 2013 the GE Hitachi ABWR was added. GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy's ESBWR is an improved design "evolved from the ABWR" but that utilizes passive safety features including natural circulation principles. The EUR are essentially a utilities' wish list of some 5000 items needed for new nuclear plants. Estimated cost in China is $3500/kWe. It has double containment with four separate, redundant active safety systems, and boasts a core catcher under the pressure vessel. * RU with 0.9% U-235 plus DU gives 0.7% NUE, which is burned down to about 0.25% U-235. The core has low power density. This led to international collaboration and a joint regulatory statement on the EPR instrumentation and control among ONR, US NRC, France's ASN and Finland's STUK. At the commercial level, by the end of 2006 three major Western-Japanese alliances had formed in the world reactor supply market, and since then another has become prominent: Ten years later, in 2016, Westinghouse has collaborated with China’s State Nuclear Power Technology Corporation (SNPTC) in developing the AP1000 design to a CAP1000 and also a larger CAP-1400, and China is gaining a high profile as reactor vendor alongside Russia’s Rosatom. 0000002539 00000 n 2004, Fuelling Innovation, IAEA Bulletin 46/1 The first units are likely to be built at Sinop in Turkey. As well as U-233, some U-232 is formed, and the highly gamma-active daughter products of this confer a substantial proliferation resistance. After the first four units in China, the design is known as the CAP1000 there. The CAP1400 project may extend to a larger, three-loop CAP1700 or CAP2100 design if the passive cooling system can be scaled to that level. Average burnup is 45,000 MWd/tU, thermal efficiency is 36%. Much of the one million man-hours of work involved in developing this US EPR was said to be making the necessary changes to output electricity at 60 Hz instead of the original design's 50 Hz. This will have two reactor modules, each of 250 MWt/105 MWe (equivalent), with a single steam generator, and using 8.5% enriched fuel (245,000 elements) giving 90 GWd/t discharge burnup. As well as natural uranium, it can use direct recovered/reprocessed uranium (RU) from used PWR fuel, natural uranium equivalent (NUE – DU + RU), MOX (DU + Pu), fertile fuels such as LEU + thorium and Th with Pu, and closed cycle fuels (Th + U-233 + Pu). Production units would be 165 MWe. It has modular construction which is expected to give 36-month construction time instead of 52 months for the APR1400. Increasingly they involve international collaboration. Fuller details of the situation are in the Nuclear Power in China information page. In mid-2016 Toshiba withdrew its design certification renewal application, and in August 2017 GE Hitachi put its review by the NRC on hold. (Moderated and mostly cooled by heavy water) In Canada, the government-owned Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd (AECL) had two designs under development which are based on its reliable CANDU-6 reactors, the most recent of which are operating in China. GE Hitachi was also designing a 600-800 MWe version of the ABWR, with five instead of ten internal coolant pumps, aiming at Southeast Asia. They will have 60-year design life overall but require mid-life pressure tube replacement. Sinha R.K.& Kakodkar A. Overnight capital costs were projected to be very competitive with older designs, and modular design is expected to reduce construction time eventually to 36 months. It has three active and passive redundant safety systems and an additional backup cooling chain, similar to EPR. This is a large unit which would burn actinides with uranium and plutonium in oxide fuel. They have four coolant loops, 163 fuel assemblies, and are rated 3000 MWt. It has 37% net efficiency and can load-follow down to 70% using recirculation pumps only, and down to 40% with control rods. Ramp up and down between 100% and 50% takes two hours. It restarted in 2010 before closing down again due to an ancillary mechanical problem and is now being decommissioned. One of these earlier designs continues, with associated fuel cycle innovation. Two steam turbines are offered: Power Machines (Silmash) full-speed; and Alstom Arabelle half-speed, as proposed for MIR-1200 and Hanhikivi in Finland. It has been developed by Candu Energy with CNNC’s Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Corp, which plans to convert the two Qinshan CANDU-6 PHWR units to AFCRs. The ESBWR (4500 MWt) will produce approximately 1600 MWe gross, and 1520 MWe net, depending on site conditions, and has a design operating lifetime of 60 years. The primary diesel generators have fuel for 72 hours, the secondary back-up ones for 24 hours, and tertiary battery back-up lasts 12 hours. Its main purpose is to provide operating experience and technological solutions, especially regarding fuels, that will be applied to the BN-1200. Design certification by the Korean Institute of Nuclear Safety was awarded in May 2003. Burn-up is about 100,000 MWd/t. (In the demonstration plant it would transfer heat in a steam generator rather than driving a turbine directly.) 2003, Advanced Heavy Water Reactor, INS News vol 16, 1 IEA-NEA-IAEA 2002, Innovative Nuclear Reactor Development Both Toshiba and GE Hitachi have applied separately to the NRC for design certification renewal, though these are respectively withdrawn or on hold. Reactor suppliers in North America, Japan, Europe, Russia, China and elsewhere have a dozen new nuclear reactor designs at advanced stages of planning or under construction, while others are at a research and development stage. However, due to rationalisation over 2011-13, this design has been dropped in favour of the Hualong One, essentially the ACP1000 with some features from the ACPR. The first unit (with 80% US content) was expected to be grid connected by 2020. The advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR) is derived from a General Electric design in collaboration with Toshiba. 0000002696 00000 n 0000009565 00000 n Areva NP is working with EdF on a ‘new model’ EPR, the EPR NM or EPR2, “offering the same characteristics” as the EPR but with simplified construction and significant cost reduction – about 30%. A Hitachi RBWR design based on the ABWR-II has the central part of each fuel assembly (about 80% of it) with MOX fuel rods and the periphery uranium oxide. Generation I reactors were developed in 1950-60s, and the last one shut down in the UK in 2015. Other advanced PHWR designs and concepts are in Appendix 3. When a CANDU natural uranium fuel bundle is discharged from the reactor, after 12-18 months of irradiation, it is removed to a pool system for interim storage Ref. The NRC confirmed its safety in September 2018 and design certification was approved in May 2019 and formally awarded in August. In addition, a 400 MWe version was envisaged. A variant of this is proposed to utilise the UK's reactor-grade plutonium stockpile. Generation II reactors are typified by the present US and French fleets and most in operation elsewhere. Fuller description of fast neutron reactors is in that information page. The CANDU/PHWR is an optimal reactor option for establishing countries, when equipped with the right fuel. A larger US design, the Gas Turbine - Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR), is planned as modules of 285 MWe each directly driving a gas turbine at 48% thermal efficiency. Its breeding ratio is quoted as 1.2 to 1.4, using oxide or nitride fuel. In 2011 the reactor division of AECL was sold and became Candu Energy Inc, a subsidiary of SNC-Lavalin. Novovoronezh II, from mid-2016, Leningrad II from 2018, as AES-2006. Two of these features are the channel design of the reactor, and on-power refuelling. Outer: 24 pins Th-Pu-239 with 3.25% Pu. Seismic rating is 300 Gal. The performance of CANDU fuel continues to be excellent. In a further stage of joint research from 2014, and applying the more accurate analysis methods developed by the three American universities, Hitachi will continue to evaluate the safety and performance of the new reactor concepts, and will study plans for tests with a view towards practical applications. Westinghouse earlier claimed a 36-month construction time to fuel loading. With an outlet temperature of 750ºC the pair will produce steam at 566ºC to drive a single steam cycle turbine at about 40% thermal efficiency. That for Hanhikivi is 1250 MWe gross, due to cold water. The first ones being built in China were on a 57-month schedule to grid connection, but took about 110 months. Another departure is that most will be designed for load-following. 0000004871 00000 n In this, 90-92% of the uranium in the used fuel is volatalised as UF6, then purified for enrichment or storage. Torgerson D F 2002, The ACR-700, Nuclear News Oct 2002. Atomenergoproekt website. The VBER-300 and the similar-sized VK300 are more fully described in the Small Nuclear Power Reactors information page. The Novovoronezh units provide 1114 MWe net each, and the Leningrad II units 1085 MWe net each. 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